In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry (Grand Lodge of England) at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife, Maria Theresa, effectively executed the real powers of those positions. Especially his mother Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine were against the loss of Lorraine. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatiaand Bohemiaas Francis I. Holy Roman Emperor. On Leopold Clement's death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the grace of God electedRoman Emperor, always August, hereditaryEmperor of Austriaand he was called the Emperor of both Germany and Austria. Media in category "Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 41 files are in this category, out of 41 total. Francis I was the Holy Roman Emperor who along with his wife founded the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. He also served as the first president of the German Confederationfollo… He was officially succeeded by his eldest son Joseph II although the real power remained with his wife. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This particular affair was remarked upon in the letters and journals of visitors to the court and in those of his children. Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. In October 1738 he was back in Vienna. He was very close to his brother and sister Anne Charlotte. Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. Maria Theresa secured in the Treaty of Füssen his election to the Empire on 13 September 1745, in succession to Charles VII, and she made him co-regent of her hereditary dominions. Francis I of Austria became Holy Roman Emperor in 1792. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. He was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. As such, in 1729, he succeeded his father as the Duke of Lorraine. The wedding was held on February 14, 1736. He led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars, and later joined the Second and Third Coalitions against Napoleon. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriages), and so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Co… Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine, but lost Lorraine when he had to give it to France. During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, the Norfolk estate of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. 12/8/1708; d. 8/18/1765, Holy Roman emperor from Sept. 13, 1775; he was duke of Lorraine (as Francis Stephen) from 1729 … He was a member of the Freemasons. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, the latter’s domains would be united with Austria’s, and French plans for the acquisition of Lorraine would be thwarted. Elisabeth of Parma had also wanted the Grand Duchy of Tuscany for her son Charles III of Spain; Gian Gastone de' Medici was childless and was related to Elisabeth via her great grandmother Margherita de' Medici. 10. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. Francis at the age of 15 in his hunting attire. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French.Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. Francis Stefan of Lorraine succeeded his father as Duke of Lorraine in 1729. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Francis II (German: Franz II. Omissions? Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. On February 1, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter: she would withdraw from her future reign, when a male successor for her father appeared. If something were to go wrong, Francis would become governor of the Austrian Netherlands. Born to Leopold II of Tuscany, he became the heir to Joseph II, the Holy Roman Emperor, who was his uncle. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-I-Holy-Roman-emperor, Holy Roman Empire Association - Biography of Emperor Francis I. found: Ency. Not to be confused with Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, later styled Francis I as Emperor of Austria. During the war he was elected Holy Roman emperor after the death of the emperor Charles VII (the elector Charles Albert of Bavaria), who was one of his wife’s chief adversaries. In 1744 Charles became governor of the Austrian Netherlands, a post he held until his death in 1780. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Membership: Holy Roman Empire Association, Charter of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Heraldic Council of the Holy Roman Empire, Court of Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire, Council of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial immediacy of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Household of the Holy Roman Emperor, Powers and Titles of the Holy Roman Emperor, Order of the Ancient Nobility of the Four Emperors, Order of the Defeated Dragon - Ordo Draconum, Association of the Counts Arundell of Wardour, Jesus Christ - Jesus of Nazareth - Son of God, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. When Maria Theresa succeeded Charles VI (Oct. 20, 1740), she immediately appointed her husband coregent. In 1519 Francis sought election as Holy Roman emperor but lost out to Charles of Habsburg, who already was the king of Spain and ruler of the Netherlands. With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business capacity and was a useful assistant to Maria Theresa in the laborious task of governing the complicated Austrian dominions, but he was not active in politics. On January 31, 1736 Francis had agreed to marry Maria Theresa. From the personal collection of Maestro Raymond Leppard (1927-2019). etc. Francis was born in Nancy, Lorraine (now in France), the oldest surviving son of Leopold Joseph, duke of Lorraine, and his wife Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, daughter of Philippe, duc d'Orléans. Francis and the House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. Autograph signature to letter : Vienna, to Valerio Publicola of Santa Cruz, 1763 Mar. Jul 26, 2015 - Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.