Bucer reassured them that Christians who humble themselves before God eventually receive his protection. In the 16th century, the Holy Roman Empire was a centralised state in name only. Fearing a Turkish invasion of central Europe, he wanted to restore unity between the princes of Germany. Bucer rejected the favourable conditions and recommended that Jews be prohibited from all trades except those providing minimum subsistence. Martin Bucer 11 November 1491 - 28 February 1551 A German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices ( Wikipedia ). The Latin form of his name is "Bucerus" and modern scholars have opted to use the abbreviation of the Latin form, "Bucer". In his defense he claimed that each of these compromises was only a temporary measure, that he hoped that further changes gradually would be made. Even though Bucer was criticized for his evasive approach and concealment of the issues in the controversies between the adherents of Zwingli and Luther, the civil authorities in many southern German areas sought his advice and guidance in arranging compromises based on edicts by local authorities. It proposed that the council assume almost complete control of the church, with responsibility for supervising doctrine, appointing church wardens, and maintaining moral standards. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Three series are working toward providing all of his works in critical editions, the Martini Buceri Opera Latina, the Martin Bucers Deutsche Schriften, and the collection of his letters in the Briefwechsel/Correspondance de Martin Bucer … The division of power between the emperor and the various states made the Reformation in Germany possible, as individual states defended reformers within their territories. The extent of the theological division among the reformers became evident when the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V asked them to present their views to him in 1530 at the Diet of Augsburg. Eells and Greschat do not claim a direct connection between Bucer's recommendations and the 1552 Prayer Book. Von Wied was excommunicated on 16 April 1546, and he formally surrendered his electoral titles on 25 February 1547. On the basis of his belief that the Bible was the sole source for knowledge to attain salvation (sola scriptura), he preached that the Mass should not be considered as the recrucifying of Christ, but rather the reception of God's gift of salvation through Christ. A copy of Melanchthon's draft was used as the starting point and the only major change was the wording on the article on the eucharist. When Charles used Bucer’s rather far-reaching concessions in his secret negotiations with the liberal Catholics as the basis for an official solution of the controversy over the Reformation, Bucer, taken by surprise, denied any participation in a scheme for union. 978 3 402 12780 3 - Volume 61 Issue 4 He then began to work for the Reformation, with the support of Franz von Sickingen. Bucer (the German form is Butzer) was born in 1491, the son of a cooper, in Schlettstadt (Sélestat) in Alsace. This reform through conversion, piety, and discipline found its fullest expression in the massive program for the reformation of England that he presented to King Edward VI of England in 1551. Martin Bucer has 31 books on Goodreads with 353 ratings. For this gathering, Bucer provided a draft document of sixteen articles on church doctrine. The De Regno Christi [On the Kingdom of Christ] was the culmination of Bucer's many years of experience, a summary of his thought and theology that he described as his legacy. He influenced not only the development of Calvinism but also the liturgical development of the Anglican Communion. In his view the Reformation was not only concerned with the church, but in all areas of life. " In April and May 1533, he again toured the southern German cities and Swiss cities. The two sides made a promising start, reaching agreement over the issue of justification by faith. After the discussion broke down between the two, Bucer tried to salvage the situation, but Luther noted, "It is obvious that we do not have one and the same spirit. The political rivalry among all the players greatly influenced the ecclesiastical developments within the Empire. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Bucer, however, made no doctrinal concessions: he remained silent on critical matters such as the mass and the papacy. However, he also notes that Beza and Edward VI mentioned the 28 February date. After a year, he was consecrated as … In June he entered a controversy when Peter Martyr Vermigli, another refugee who had taken the equivalent Regius Professor position at Oxford University, debated with Catholic colleagues over the issue of the Lord's Supper.  A few days later, Bucer and Fagius were introduced to Edward VI and his court. In 1549, Martin Bucer was forced to leave Strasbourg; he moved to England at the request of Thomas Cranmer. Bucer entered the Dominican monastic order in 1506. , Sickingen also offered to pay for Bucer to study in Wittenberg. I for one have never met two people who believed exactly the same thing. As a result, the colloquy became deadlocked. Four disputed issues were left undecided: veneration of the saints, private masses, auricular confession, and transubstantiation. In Strassburg Bucer gave himself over to the work of the ministry. It was ruled by a complex local government largely under the control of a few powerful families and wealthy guildsmen. , "Butzer" redirects here. , In response to the petition, the council set up a commission that proposed a city synod. , In March 1526, Bucer published Apologia, defending his views. €24.80 (paper). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). For a long time Bucer was the least known of the great Protestant Reformers. , On 5 February 1542, Bucer and Gropper met with Hermann von Wied, archbishop-elector of Cologne, to discuss the introduction of church reform in his archdiocese. It has a new chapter, “New Insights," in which Greschat interacts with publications since 1990. On 5 September 1524, angry mobs broke into the monasteries, looting and destroying religious images. However, he did not believe the Reformation depended on either position but on faith in Christ, other matters being secondary. Luther harshly rejected Bucer's interpretation. The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI (1552), utilizing Bucer’s criticism, offended the conservatives in the English church and did not satisfy the more radical reformers; it remained in force for about eight months. The Swiss were unhappy that Bucer had made concessions that leaned toward the doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and some thought that he should formally recant his statements as they were incorporated in the Wittenberg Concord. , When Philip of Hesse's law on the protection of the Jews in his territory expired in 1538, he commissioned Bucer to create a new policy. While not as recognizable as contemporaries Martin Luther, John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, or even Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Bucer’s influential role in the early Protestant Reformation may only stand behind that of Luther himself. In 1510, he was ordained as a deacon. Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer;[a] 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. The First Prayer Book of Edward VI (1549), the liturgical book of the newly Reformed English church that contained evidence of Lutheran influence, was submitted for formal criticism to Bucer, who could not speak English. [e] Scholars agree that although Bucer's impact on the Church of England should not be overestimated, he exercised his greatest influence on the revision of the Prayer Book.. In 1506 he entered the Dominican order, and was sent to study at Heidelberg. After consulting the territorial diet, the archbishop enlisted Bucer to lead the reform, and on 14 December Bucer moved to Bonn, the capital of the electorate. One of Bucer's first actions in the cause of reform was to debate with Thomas Murner, a monk who had attacked Luther in satires. Martin Bucer’s Doctrine of Justification: Reformation Theology and Early Modern Irenicism. … , Beginning in 1524, Bucer concentrated on the main issue dividing leading reformers, the eucharist. Bucer agreed to interrupt his journey and went to work immediately, preaching daily sermons in which he attacked traditional church practices and monastic orders. Bucer aided Philip in persuading Luther, Melanchthon, and others to sanction a second wife for him on the basis of Old Testament plural marriages. Although the document specified that bigamy could be sanctioned only under rare conditions, Philip took it as approval for his marriage to a lady-in-waiting of his sister. Martin Bucer, Bucer also spelled Butzer, (born November 11, 1491, Schlettstadt (now Sélestat), Alsace—died February 28, 1551, England), Protestant reformer, mediator, and liturgical scholar best known for his ceaseless attempts to make peace between conflicting reform groups. Instead they met in Basel on 1 February 1536 to draft their own confession of faith. Bucer was forced to return to Strasbourg shortly afterwards. Bucer later claimed his grandfather had forced him into the order. The Duchy itself was represented by Georg Witzel, a former Lutheran who had reconverted to Catholicism. , At the end of 1538, shortly before the Catholic Duke Georg of Saxony died, a religious colloquy was convened in Leipzig to discuss potential reforms within the Duchy. Bucer consulted Luther and Melanchthon, and the three reformers presented Philip with a statement of advice (Wittenberger Ratschlag); later, Bucer produced his own arguments for and against bigamy. , Bucer had ambitious goals in diffusing the Reformation throughout England. Münster: Aschendorff, 2009. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Works published by Martin Bucer. His justification for the use of ambiguity was that he believed that the essential goal was the reform of the people and the doctrinal issues could be worked out later. Bucer then traveled to several southern German cities, including Ulm, Isny, Konstanz, Memmingen, and Lindau, and to the Swiss cities of Basel and Zürich. Some scholars have noted a possible motivation for this notorious advice: the theologians believed they had advised Philip as a pastor would his parishioner, and that a lie was justified to guard the privacy of their confessional counsel. In Strasbourg, Bucer and his colleagues, including Matthew Zell, Paul Fagius and Johannes Marbach, continued to press the council to bring more discipline and independence to the church. When rumours of the marriage spread, Luther told Philip to deny it, while Bucer advised him to hide his second wife and conceal the truth. Bucer believed that the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire could be convinced to join the Reformation. Martin Bucer (1491–1551) was one of the most important sixteenth-century Reformers, who became leader of the Reformed Churches in Switzerland and South Germany after the death of Zwingli. The following year, he took a course in dogmatics in Mainz, where he was ordained a priest, returning to Heidelberg in January 1517 to enroll in the university. Excommunicated by the church in 1523, he made his way to Strasbourg, where his parents’ citizenship assured him of protection. The Ivdgement of Martin Bucer, concerning divorce. The ambiguous word "truly" was not defined. The new couple produced a daughter, whom they named Elisabeth. On 25 April 1549 Bucer, Fagius, and others arrived in London, where Cranmer received them with full honours. He is remembered as an early pioneer of ecumenism. Although his ministry did not lead to the formation of a new denomination, many Protestant denominations have claimed him as one of their own. , These first steps toward reform were halted on 17 August 1543 when Charles V and his troops entered Bonn. Believing that the rift between the two strands of the reform movement could be bridged, Bucer participated in nearly every meeting on religious questions held in Germany and Switzerland between 1524 and 1548. ", In 1550, another conflict arose when John Hooper, the new bishop of Gloucester, refused to don the traditional vestments for his consecration. At Wittenberg in the same year, Bucer took part in a conference between Lutheran and Swiss–South German theologians. Pp. 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