James Sanders has gathered classified documents and interviewed ex-operatives since 1997 and has pieced together an extraordinary, unsavoury picture of the Intelligence Service, both inside South Africa … From 1961 to 1990, a total of 67 people died in South African Police detention from hanging and torture as well as natural causes as claimed by the Police. Abstract PIP: Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. "When I was 16 I was incarcerated for allegedly having sexual relations with a white girl during a time when it was forbidden in South Africa. The police were heavily armed after that, especially when facing unruly or hostile crowds. 2. We discussed in this class what might inspire a Jew to help a black South African noting, at the time only 2% of the white population in South Africa was Jewish but 60% of the white anti-apartheid activists in South Africa were Jewish (Feld 2010). From 1923, the SAP also had its own long service medal, which doubled as a medal for gallantry. In 1981 the police force of roughly 48,991 represented a ratio of less than 1.5 police per 1,000 people, down from 1.67 per 1,000 people in the 1960s. Their basic training lasted 6 months. The South African political landscape was dominated in the 1970s by the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and anti-apartheid student political activity. For most people, the police were the face of apartheid representing force against the majority of the South African population, without whose consent the state ruled. The cardiologist headed an apartheid-era secret germ warfare programme. The … It led to the political and economic discrimination which separated Black (or Bantu), Coloured (mixed race), Indian, and White South Africans. It was headed by Hendrik van den Bergh. Botha appointed Niel Barnard in November 1979 to form a new intelligence service. Includes bibliographical references and index. [3]:114, Police officials often called on the army for support in emergencies. A youth wing of this reserve force reported that it had inducted almost 3,000 students and young people to assist the police during the late 1980s.[14]. The first Commissioner of Police was Colonel Theo G Truter with 5,882 men under his command. Formed following a need to defend the border between South Africa and Rhodesia during the Rhodesian Bush War, the Special Task Force were unofficially founded in 1967, and began to be trained to use advanced tactics, such as survival and bush skills, to carry out COIN operations, and drastically reduce police casualties - this unit was known as the 'Bliksems'. Finally, authorization of creating the Specialist Task Force was given, following multiple recommendations, and the issues described beforehand. This past week South Africa’s former defence minister Siphiwe Nyanda issued former President Jacob Zuma with a defamation lawsuit for calling him an apartheid spy. Apartheid . Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. Although the Afrikaners were the minority ethnic group in the country, the Afrikaner National Party gained control of the government in 1948. Kasrils and others in the ANC operated more clandestinely, as one of the major nerve centers for global organizing against apartheid that grew in the 1970s and exploded in the 1980s, with multiracial … [2]:Chp2 As the BOSS head Hendrik van den Bergh was a close ally of the Prime Minister, it was seen by Military Intelligence as a foregone conclusion that BOSS would achieve favour. It worked closely with intelligence services of other white-minority governments including PIDE of Estado Novo Portugal and its colonial empire as well as the British South Africa Police of Rhodesia to coordinate counterinsurgency operations between the three countries. Residents are dispersed by the South African Police Service during a demonstration in Eldorado Park, Johannesburg, on August 27, 2020. White minority rule didn’t mean much in a community that was exclusively black. The Police Amendment Act (No. And state violence to maintain order and enforce labor demands has not disappeared. South African police beat black women with clubs after anti-apartheid protesters raided and set a beer hall on fire in Durban, South Africa in 1959. It and the South African Defense Force managed Operation Plathond, an operation to train insurgents in an attempt to destabilize Zambia, before President Kenneth Kaunda accused South Africa of destabilization operations. And state violence to maintain order and enforce labor demands has not disappeared. In the 1930s, the Union of South Africa had formed an intelligence organization modeled after MI5 and MI6 as a special branch of the South African Police. He also established police/community forums in almost every police station. He is a former head of the South African Secret Service. A scandal was the main reason for its replacement by NIS in 1980. [2]:Chp4 Believing that the outcome of both inquiries were already predetermined, BOSS officials began to shred any document that could be used against them. [3]:436 Attached to the Prime Minister office, he would be in command of all security and intelligence chiefs in the country including the military, and reported only to Vorster. training at Maleoskop (now closed) in specialised weapons and "bush warfare" in preparation for their 3 months "call up". What followed from apartheid dispossession and disenfranchisement was a series of laws displacing people or making their location in one or more place insecure or vulnerable. There is a specific scene where the white head of Secret Police made that statement and had emptied the prison of known black career criminals and paid them gold (krugger rands- the cops had stolen from the mint in South Africa) to attack each other and stroke tribal warfare. Former agents testifying before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission have confirmed the existence of a secret death squad called the Z-Squad managed by Dirk Coetzee. [2]:Chp4, The new Prime Minister P.W. [1], During the middle of 1968, the South African cabinet approved the implementation of a centralised security service and on 28 August of the same year, General Hendrik van den Bergh was instructed to start planning the new organisation. Former policeman Joao Rodrigues is set to go on trial for Timol's killing after a South African court last year declined his application for a permanent halt of his prosecution. The first racially integrated intake of recruits began slowly in 1993 and integration was complete by 1995. In 1996 the combined active and reserve police represented a police-to-population ratio of almost 4.0 per 1,000. The police increased the use of part-time, specialised personnel – such as the special constables (called kitskonstabels (instant constables) in Afrikaans) – to help quell the growing violence in the 1980s. Because Kagiso, the township of Krugersdorp, was a small community during the 1970s, the security officers also knew the families of the “troublemakers” and threatened them with arrests and detentions. This unit is still in action in modern-day South Africa. Thereafter they formed part of the new South African honours system. ALEXANDRA, South Africa — During apartheid, the government wielded the police like a club, using them to keep black South Africans in check and brutally extinguish any dissent. Today there is only one Police College to train new recruits in Pretoria. [2]:Chp4 He viewed Foreign Affairs as too overt and tainted by the Information Scandal and therefore saw a need to organise BOSS into a new agency based around research and analysis and removed its old covert operational function and transferred that to the Security Branch of the police. In turn, one SAP brigade served with the 2nd Infantry Division of the South African Army in North Africa during World War II. As part of the overall reorganisation of the police, the government merged the formerly dreaded Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and the police security branch to form a Crime Combatting and Investigation (CCI) Division. 808 on 16 May 1969 announced the Bureau for State Security's formation and came into being retrospectively on the 1 May as a department under the Prime Minister. A finger printing office was established in Pietermaritzburg in 1900, a year before Britain’s Scotland Yard followed suit, and by 1925 several offices had mushroomed, necessitating the creation of the South African Criminal Bureau. Policemen and women were eligible for a number of awards. For example, most black police personnel had trained at Hammanskraal, near Pretoria; most whites, in Pretoria; most coloureds, Bishop Lavis, near Cape Town; and Asians at Chatsworth, near Durban. Specialized courses include crowd and riot control, detective skills, horsemanship and veterinary training, and advanced-level management skills. KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa, Transkei, and Venda, and was renamed the South African Police Service. The SAP relinquished its responsibility for South West Africa in 1981. Botha to prime minister, the SADF's power increased in cabinet, along with that the Directorate Military Intelligence (DMI), who would strive to dominate security issues in the new government and decide its policy and implementation. [1], The organisational structure of BOSS is said to have been composed of the following departments:[2]:Chp2, In the wake of the Information scandal (known as Muldergate) in which the Bureau of State Security (BOSS) had become mired, the head of the BOSS, Hendrik van den Berg, resigned in June 1978 and was replaced by Alec van Wyk. Potgieter to establish the guidelines and mission for intelligence gathering by the Military Intelligence (later DMI) and the Bureau for State Security. Potgieter's Commission of Inquiry on State Security is submitted to", This Day in History - The South African Bureau Of State Security (BOSS) established, Crimes and Mysteries of South Africa - The Information Scandal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bureau_of_State_Security&oldid=980538806, Defunct organisations based in South Africa, Defunct South African intelligence agencies, Defunct law enforcement agencies of South Africa, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles containing Afrikaans-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, National Evaluation, Research and Special Studies, This page was last edited on 27 September 2020, at 02:49. Among the SAP's spies during the apartheid era was the infamous Craig Williamson and his best-known female recruit Olivia Forsyth. [11], In 1983, the SAP formed C1, a counter-insurgency unit commanded by police colonel and former Koevoet operator Eugene de Kock. On 20 November 1978, the Bureau of State Security was brought under tighter control as a cabinet portfolio called National Security managed by Prime Minister who also held the Minister of Defence portfolio. The climate of escalating violence in the early 1990s often posed even greater challenges to the police than they had faced in the 1980s, as violence shifted from anti-government activity to a mosaic of political rivalries and factional clashes. ISBN 978-1-4082-4564-4 (pbk.) This was discontinued in 1933, because South Africa had become independent as a member of the new British Commonwealth, and it was replaced in 1937 by a special South African issue of the medal. I was assaulted by police, they almost killed me. Members of the South Africa's Mine Workers Union sing the old apartheid-era national anthem while demonstrating against affirmative action at a march in downtown Johannesburg Friday, Oct. 20, 1995. 1. The basic police training regimen includes courses in criminal investigation procedures, self-defense, musketry, tactical weapons training, drills, inspections, public relations and law. 70) of 1965 empowered the police to search without warrant any person, receptacle, vehicle, aircraft, or premise within one mile of any national border and to seize anything found during such a search. Public amenities could not be shared among different races. [3]:114 During World War I, the SAP took over the Riflemen's jurisdiction, and most Riflemen personnel were transferred to the SAP by the end of the 1910s. After South Africa's transition to majority rule in 1994, the SAP was reorganised into the South African Police Service (SAPS). [6] It took over the South African Railways Police Force in 1986[citation needed]. [3]:439, On 5 September 1969, Prime Minister John Vorster formed a commission led by Justice H.J. From 1948 through the 1990s, a single word dominated life in South Africa. People “fell” from high buildings while in the Police’s care. Amazingly she's still alive and shown at the end of this beautiful and intense drama about racism. [3]:437 It outlined the control of the Bureau for State Security would rest with Prime Minister and that the civil service Public Service Commission would have no control over it powers, functions and duties. During the late apartheid era, the structure and ethos of the South African Police was animated by the task of containing an insurgency. At its core, apartheid was all about racial segregation. Apartheid—Afrikaans for “apartness”—kept the country’s majority black population This followed another senior African National Congress (ANC) member and former minister Derek Hanekom also filing a defamation lawsuit against Zuma for calling him “a known enemy agent” on Twitter. [3]:437 Military Intelligence's (MI) budget was reduced from R830,000 the previous year to a R39,000 a which would lead to continuous struggle for power between MI and BOSS throughout the seventies. Peter Hain, a South African exile, became the public face of the movement, leading a successful effort to get the South African cricket and rugby teams banned from Britain. The following people have served as the Commissioner of the South African Police:[7][8]. Most of these constables were Blacks and Coloreds. Opposition to apartheid manifested in a variety of ways, including boycotts, non-violent protests, and armed resistance. A former South African police officer will face trial over the 1971 killing of an anti-apartheid activist after a court ruling that could lead to the prosecution of similar crimes. The organization also arranged for political assassinations. Although the mission of the SAP grew well beyond conventional policing responsibilities during the 1970s, the size of the police force declined relative to population. The former head of a military research laboratory, Daan Goosen, told the commission that the project had the backing of South Africa’s then Surgeon General, who described it as “the most … In 1973, a ground-breaking film, Joe Bullet, was screened - for the very first time - at the Eyethu Cinema in Soweto. ... a secret policeman under South Africa’s brutal, racist apartheid regime. ALEXANDRA, South Africa — During apartheid, the government wielded the police like a club, using them to keep black South Africans in check and brutally extinguish any dissent. One, the amendment of Officials Secrets Act to include BOSS and secondly, preventing the Prime Minister, Van den Bergh or cabinet ministers from giving evidence or producing documents in court that might prejudice State Security. This search-and-seize zone was extended to within eight miles of any border in 1979 and to the entire country in 1983. In 1969, Malawi was the only country at the assembly which did not sign the Lusaka Manifesto condemning South Africa' apartheid policy. [9] Barnard had to restructure the NIS to a role based on analysis and evaluation, which meant that the old organisations offensive operational and policing role had to change resulting in many of the old BOSS/DONS personnel leaving. The SAP originally policed cities and urban … The word “apartheid” means “separateness” in Afrikaans. (Photo by Ali Greeff/AFP) South Africa : the rise and fall of apartheid / Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger. In some circumstances, the police were also authorised to serve as vehicle inspectors, postal agents, and local court personnel. Potgieter, of The Appellate Division of the Sup", "An abridged version of the security report by Justice H.J. In 1967, the two states set out their political and economic relations. Jacob Zuma. After the Soweto Uprising on 16 June 1976, hundreds of young people left the country to join the liberation movements in exile, where they received military training. A black girl born to white parents during Apartheid South Africa was a national sensation. Abstract PIP: Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. 1 review Winter blows the whistle on his career as a journalist working for the South African intelligence forces during the Apartheid years. Police reports from the time of the massacre claimed that panicking officers spontaneously fired into an increasingly violent crowd; however, other sources claim that the demonstration was peaceful in the moment leading up to the shooting. After the Soweto Uprising on 16 June 1976, hundreds of young people left the country to join the liberation movements in … p. cm. Protesters flee as police charge during riots in Cape Town in 1976. During South Africa's apartheid era, several anti-apartheid activists died in police custody or under mysterious circumstances, but their deaths have gone largely uninvestigated in the courts. Active within the Namibian War of Independence from 1979 to 1989, they were held responsible for committing multiple human rights violations, and alongside the South West African Police, they were disbanded following Namibian independence in 1989, and were essentially replaced by the Special Field Force in modern-day Namibia. The new CCI, with responsibility for reversing the rising crime rate, combined the intelligence and operational resources of the security police with the anticrime capabilities of the CID. Very little has been written about the South African secret intelligence, but revelations to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the new culture of confessions now make that possible. In addition to the 300 prosecutions that the authorities have ignored, there are a further 1,200 cases of people who went missing during the apartheid era when South African police … [9], During South Africa's rule under apartheid, the SAP operated to quell civil unrest amongst the country's disenfranchised non-white majority. Minister of Law and Order Hernus Kriel in 1991 also appointed an ombudsman to investigate allegations of police misconduct. The Police Act (No. The Vlakplaas farm became the site of multiple executions of political opponents of the apartheid government. Evidence given to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 1998 suggested "a degree of deliberation in the decision to open fire" by the police. [3]:439 This caused outrage throughout the South African legal community as it could no longer protect citizens rights from the Executive. Members of the South Africa's Mine Workers Union sing the old apartheid-era national anthem while demonstrating against affirmative action at a … Censorship Laws During Apartheid (Drawn from a list published by The Star in 1980): Electoral Consolidation Act (1946): Every report, letter, article, bill, placard, poster, pamphlet, circular, cartoon or other printed matter which is intended or likely to affect the result of an election or by-election to the House of Assembly or provincial council must bear the name and address of the … During the apartheid regime, South Africa became a police state. Through the early 1980s, police units were integrated, but most police recruits had been trained in single-race classes, sometimes in institutions designated for one racial group. In 1970, Malawian president Hastings Banda made his … I argue that what has changed most since the end of apartheid is the relationship between policing and political order. After the war, the South African Police joined INTERPOL on 1 January 1948.[4][5]. It functioned as a paramilitary hit squad,[12] capturing political opponents of the National Party government and either "turning" or executing them. [6]:161 Barnard would take over the South African Department of National Security (DONS) after the retirement of the existing head Alec van Wyk. [15] During the late 1980s, the Hammanskraal college saw a large enrollment of black policemen.[16]. [2]:105 The SAP originally policed cities and urban areas, while the South African Mounted Riflemen, a branch of the Union Defence Force, enforced the state's writ in rural areas. Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. Naude has has been on the witness stand for two days, testifying at … The Europeans in South Africa were responsible for establishing apartheid in the 20th century.
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